Tip #5: Help your learners take control of their own learning.
Bransford et al. (2000) highlight that active learning, that lets learners take control of their own learning, begins with metacognition. “A ‘metacognitive’ approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.” (p. 18)
Anderson (2000) recommends improving memory for text by reading it in multiple passes, asking yourself questions as you go. “In research with experts who were asked to verbalize their thinking as they worked, it was revealed that they monitored their own understanding carefully, making note of when additional information was required for understanding, whether new information was consistent with what they already knew, and what analogies could be drawn that would advance their understanding. These meta-cognitive monitoring activities are an important component of what is called adaptive expertise (Hatano and Inagaki, 1986)” (Bransford et al., 2000, p. 18)
The case of Herbert A. Simon demonstrates adaptive expertise. Simon is credited for significant contributions to eight different fields of study. (Dasgupta, 2003)
Metacognition is what facilitates transfer. When you read, hear or see something, you have to analyze it, and ask questions about it. By monitoring their understanding, questioning and exploring the answers to their questions, students can achieve learning with understanding and become active learners.